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THE DIARY OF LAMECH CHAMBERS

In the spring of 1860 Lamech Chambers joined the Green and John Russell party on a gold prospecting expedition to the Rocky Mountains and present day Denver, CO. Lamech was accompanied by his son Barak , his youngest brother Spencer "Bud" Chambers, and Solomon "Sol" Roe. Solomon Roe married Lamech's youngest sister Saloma Clubb Chambers (#19) soon after the expedition. Solomon had several pairs of cuff links made from some of the gold he mined, and today Norris Chambers possesses the only known pair. Lamech kept a diary during the expeditionf rom 3 Apr 1860 through 4 Sep1860. The original copy of this diary has not been located, but there is no evidence to suspect the authenticity of the copy. The complete diary of Lamech Chambers is as follows:

Month of April 1860 3rd Tuesday - We left camp by the sun and at teno'clock we passed Grasshopper Creek the land exceedingly rich with a bolt of timber along the creek. At twelve we stopped and fed at Rock Creek walnut timber on the creek between the two streams great rolling prairie very rich black soil, the grass green, but short. At noon I and Barak and John R. Russell washed our feet, warm and pleasant with light wind at night there came up a little cloud and rained a few drops a heavy squall of wind.Some of the boys discussed the Bla- question. I had lots of fun listening.

4th Wednesday - We crossed Soldier's Creek early in the morning Indianolia being on the bank of the creek. Thence we got over into the Kansas River bottom and passed into the Pottawamie Indian Reserve - exceedingly goodland - powerful wind - our men begin to grumble. We stopped and fed on Silver Lake - we then traveled up the Kansas River and drank water outof a spring on top of a little bluff. We struck camp about three o'clockon Bull Creek - the land as rich as a manure pile in Georgia.

5th Thursday - We passed the Catholic mission and drove up to Lost Creekat Greenmores seven miles about the mission and struck up camp for theday - the land exceedingly rich and level with fine alluvail soil. Me and John Russell and Barak and Bud and Odom took a walk in the evening andwent round the mouth of the creek on dry land - a warm pleasant day witha light breeze of wind.

6th Friday - We crossed Rock Creek and got up to the high.black jack prairie - rather poor and sandy. We stopped and fed at St. George - we then drove up to Manhattan and camped on the bank of the Blue River.

9th Monday - We left Junction City and drove up to Chapman Creek and fed - we had a bad ford - we traveled through some high prairie and some bottom land in the evening - I saw the first antelope - we camped on Mud Creek - Sam Bates got drunk and cut up all manner of capers.

10th Tuesday - We crossed Solomon's Fork by ten o'clock - a cold cloudyday - high wind from the north. We crossed the Saline about four o'clock.The boat bad and the banks very steep - when we crossed over the road nearly gave out.

11th Wednesday - We drove four miles to the last house on the route and we bought our supply of corn and one sack of flour - we give six dollars for the sack of flour and 35 cents a bushel for corn. We crossed Elm Creek and fed at Mulberry Creek - a clear day with fresh gales of wind - we camped on Mulberry Creek - we saw the first buffalo.

12th Thursday - I was rather sick - we passed over high rolling prairie- we crossed two or three little dry creeks with an occasional hole of water - hot and still. Dag killed a buffalo. We passed through some hilly country with several small creeks, the hills rocky. Green and Doc and me and Mr. Pierce stood guard the first night - no Indians made their appearance.

13th Friday - A beautiful morning - clear and still but the wind roseup about nine o'clock and blew a perfect gale - we passed over some hilly road and got the Smoky Hill River again and fed - we met an old hunterwith a wagon load of buffalo meat and wolf skins - we then passed oversome hilly country and camped on Smoky Hill River - some thunder and a few drops of rain - wind changed to east and blew powerful.

14th Saturday - Wind from east and very cold - we traveled over some hilly road due West for about 10 miles, then due South 5 miles to the river and fed. thence we traveled west for about 7 miles, thence a little east of south 3 miles and camped at a big creek supposed by some to be Smoky Hill River, but I think not. We saw hundreds of buffalo - the boys killed two poor bulls.

15th Sunday - We lay up at our camp on the unknown creek. Green Russell and Sam Bates went off to look around and see where we are. Barak and John Russell and Bud went buffalo hunting. I stayed at the camp and boiled akettle of Irish potatoes. Mr. Pierce baked some corn bread. A beautiful warm day - after dinner, we left the road and went a little south of west fifteen miles and camped on a sand river - we found good road And plentyof water.

16th Monday - The wind blew from the North - me and Barak got breakfast.We started a due west course and thence up north west across several creeks- the grass very short - me and Rob Pierce went to the river - it was about one hundred yards wide and all a smooth bed of sand - we found three good springs and Rob killed a snake - killed two buffalo and camped on our sandriver - good road - plenty of water.

17 Tuesday - Calm and pleasant morning - we passed a cedar bluff with high walls of rock with a number of the name's-engraved in eighteen hundred and fifty nine - we struck the old road again - we camped on a creek within some timber - that is, five little scrub trees - some ravine with white sides - a cold night - we passed a number of white buffalo.

18th Wednesday - We traveled over a high prairie country with some small creeks - we crossed one big creek five times - some of us thought it Smoky Hill - we saw a high buff with a chimney stack towering up 100 feet high there came a storm of rain on us - some grumblers in camp. Sam Bates killeda buck rabbit Green Russell and Rob Pierce out looking for the river and they never got in till after dark - we got uneasy - rained in torrents- the first rain we have had.

9th Monday - We left Junction City and drove up to Chapman Creek andfed - we had a bad ford - we traveled through some high prairie and some bottom land in the evening - I saw the first antelope - we camped on Mud Creek - Sam Bates got drunk and cut up all manner of capers.

10th Tuesday - We crossed Solomon's Fork by ten o'clock - a cold cloudy day - high wind from the north. We crossed the Saline about four o'clock.The boat bad and the banks very steep - when we crossed over the road nearlyg ave out.

11th Wednesday - We drove four miles to the last house on the routeand we bought our supply of corn and one sack of flour - we give six dollars for the sack of flour and 35 cents a bushel for corn. We crossed Elm Creek and fed at Mulberry Creek - a clear day with fresh gales of wind - we camped on Mulberry Creek - we saw the first buffalo.

12th Thursday - I was rather sick - we passed over high rolling prairie- we crossed two or three little dry creeks with an occasional hole ofwater - hot and still. Dag killed a buffalo. We passed through some hilly country with several small creeks, the hills rocky. Green and Doc and me and Mr. Pierce stood guard the first night - no Indians made their appearance.

13th Friday - A beautiful morning - clear and still but the wind roseup about nine o'clock and blew a perfect gale - we passed over some hilly road and got the Smoky Hill River again and fed - we met an old hunter with a wagon load of buffalo meat and wolf skins - we then passed ove rsome hilly country and camped on Smoky Hill River - some thunder and afew drops of rain - wind changed to east and blew powerful.

14th Saturday - Wind from east and very cold - we traveled over some hilly road due West for about 10 miles, then due South 5 miles to the river and fed. thence we traveled west for about 7 miles, thence a little eastof south 3 miles and camped at a big creek supposed by some to be Smoky Hill River, but I think not. We saw hundreds of buffalo - the boys killedtw o poor bulls.

15th Sunday - We lay up at our camp on the unknown creek. Green Russell and Sam Bates went off to look around and see where we are. Barak and John Russell and Bud went buffalo hunting. I stayed at the camp and boiled a kettle of Irish potatoes. Mr. Pierce baked some corn bread. A beautiful warm day - after dinner, we left the road and went a little south of west fifteen miles and camped on a sand river - we found good road And plenty of water.

16th Monday - The wind blew from the North - me and Barak got breakfast. We started a due west course and thence up north west across several creeks- the grass very short - me and Rob Pierce went to the river - it was about one hundred yards wide and all a smooth bed of sand - we found three good springs and Rob killed a snake - killed two buffalo and camped on our sand river - good road - plenty of water.

17 Tuesday - Calm and pleasant morning - we passed a cedar bluff with high walls of rock with a number of the name's-engraved in eighteen hundred and fifty nine - we struck the old road again - we camped on a creek withins ome timber - that is, five little scrub trees - some ravine with white sides - a cold night - we passed a number of white buffalo.

18th Wednesday - We traveled over a high prairie country with some smallcreeks - we crossed one big creek five times - some of us thought it SmokyHill - we saw a high bluff with a chimney stack towering up 100 feet high there came a storm of rain on us - some grumblers in camp. Sam Bates killed a buck rabbit Green Russell and Rob Pierce out looking for the river andthey never got in till after dark - we got uneasy - rained in torrents- the first rain we have had.

19th Thursday - A clear still morning - we propose laying up today till noon - I mended my coat which was my first sewing and then I mended mybreeches - we burnt up our beans - it commenced raining again and at ten o'clock it hailed - we concluded to stay at camp all day. J. 0. Palmour killed an antelope - Green Russell went out to look around. I put up a sign board at night - the wind blew a perfect gale.

20th Friday - Clear and cool - we passed some curious butes or bluffs and drove to the Smoky Hill River and a company of Indians charged up on us.We give them all our loose provisions and the Chief and nine others followed us till we had to make coffee and eat dinner together - then they left us and we traveled on by some square walls independent of each other about 40 feet high. We camped on a dry creek - thunder and rain.

21st Saturday - We passed over a high prairie and by some more butes or walls - they had the appearance of little towns - we crossed Smoky Hillsix times. Some heavy sand road - we then fed and drove by a good bold spring running out of the side of a hill. We then drove into a long sandy bottom on the river and camped - a clear calm warm day. Me and R. H. Pierce stood guard again at midnight - there came a terrible storm of hail.

22nd Sunday - Cold and cloudy with thunder - we left camp at eight o'clock and our road turned rather north and we crossed the river and then a fork and then crossed the north fork of Smoky Hill River - Then we crossed back to the south fork and took our course through the wild prairie where we saw lots of Indian signs - we crossed the South fork by twelve o'clock and camped for the day - cold, east rainy day - cleared off in the evening.

23rd Monday - Still cloudy - we started off from camp due west for Pikes Peak - we saw the remains of an Indian buried in a tree - we then crossed the creek twice and drove 12 miles to our same creek and fed. Green Russellcaught fish out of a pool - we then drove up the creek till the water sunkunder the sand and there was not water visible - then we found water again and a good spring and we camped - a cold night.

24th Tuesday - We drove 10 miles and fed on a small creek - we got off our route some two miles - a cold snowy day - we had a stiff argument abouta buck horn - some said it was the left and some said the right - we saw some timber about 4 miles off on the main river and we drove off leaving it to our left and struck the river about two miles about it being dry and sand bed - we turned to the timber and camped and dug a hole for water.Waiting for a snow storm. None came.

25th Wednesday - We still stayed at our hole of water waiting for asnow storm. Capt. Russell rode out to look which course to go - we were cooking preparing to cross the desert - warm, but partially cloudy - there came up a shower of rain - killed I antelope. Barak, Willis, Rob Pierceand Palmour are all down on their knees working dough for supper. CaptainRussell has not yet got back to camp - we all live fat and lazy - WhiteEagle and his train of Comanches come on us - I felt rather bad.

26th Thursday - It commenced snowing early in the morning - it covered the ground quick. About eleven o'clock the White Eagle and his company of Comanches come in and struck up camp with us - we all got perfectly friendly and had a good time all through each other - it partially cleared off and turned warm - we prepared to start in the morning. The Chief White Eagle said that three sleeps would bring us to the Peak, but no wood or water.

27th Friday - Clear morning - we started off through the desert. We traveled five miles and let our stock graze by a little pool of water and small bluffs. We traveled on and occasionally found little pools or puddles of water, but no wood, not even a switch - we camped by a little ravine with a little puddle of water - grass plenty, Doc Russell dug us a little trench and we put a few splinters of wood in and fried our meat and madesupper - ate our supper and went to bed.

28th Saturday - Partially cloudy and cold - we traveled on and kepta sharp lookout for Pikes Peak - we still found very small puddles of water but no wood - grass scant - poor and level prairie. Green Russell killed an antelope at dinner time. I washed and combed up, it being Saturday evening- I should like to go out a-courting this evening, but it is rather too far to our nearest neighbors, so I have concluded to stay at home for the present at night. A powerful storm of wind - no wood. We dug a hole for water - Palmour's tent blew over - we tied the wagons to the ground - a terrible time of cold wind.

29th Sunday - The wind was still blowing a perfect hurricane from the North. We traveled fifteen miles before we found any water and then Green turned a little off our course and found a beautiful pool of water. We stopped and fed, our boys eat the raw antelope with good grace. John R.Russell asked me to take some of his molasses and I thanked him for it- it is the poorest God-forsaken looking country that I have ever saw -grass about one inch long and covered with round prickly pears - No Pikes Peak - we struck out from our pool of water 10 degrees to the North andwe passed over some hilly road - we found a big Indian camp and another pool of water - we gathered up the remnants of their wood and traveled on North of West and we struck the Republican road - we drove on about two miles and camped on a ravine - no wood or water.

30th Monday - A clear pleasant morning - ice in our water bucket - we drove up on the high prairie and saw Pikes Peak with his eternal cap of snow - a great rejoicing - I ran a half mile - we traveled 114 miles through the open prairie where white man probably never set his foot - plenty of water today - we fed at a big sandy river and then traveled up the same sandy river all the_____ and camped at a big pool of water where there was a large Indian camping ground.

1st May Tuesday - A cool morning streak of cloud. After breakfast Green Russell divided a ginger cake with us that was baked at his house in Georgiaand we called it a love feast - we then traveled on to a big sandy creek and fed - thence we traveled about ten miles and got to the pinery - when we got on the high divide I saw the grandest sight I ever beheld - we drove on to Bijou Creek and camped with the Indians. I bought a pair of moccasins.

2nd Monday - We passed over some hilly country and to another big Indian camp - a hot day - at dinner three Indians eat with us - we passed oversome hilly road with scrub pine timber - we camped on a dry sandy creek- dug us a hole in the sand and got good free stove water - I washed my neck and feet and put on a clean shirt and drawers.

3rd Thursday - We got breakfast and there was a general washing and cleaning up with Captain Russell and all his company as we expect to getto Aurora today about ten o'clock. We struck the big Arkansas Road and came to a house on the road - thence we traveled on to a house where wes aw a woman - we got to Aurora about three o'clock - I got five lettersfour from home and one from S. C. - I got great satisfaction.

4th Friday - We lay over at our camp at Denver City all day - me and Barak bought three shovels - two pans and one pack for $11 dollars. Some of the boys went to look at the Spanish diggins.

5th Saturday - We still stayed at Denver - me and Barak and H. R. Pierceand Fayette Pierce went out to the Spanish diggins and panned out aboutl-1/2 penny-weight of very nice gold - a clear warm day with some wind- I give three dollars for 1 gallon molasses.

6th Sunday - We left Denver City and traveled 13 miles to Golden City at the foot of the Rocky Mountains - as we approached the mountains the plains continued to be level and richer. The mountains presents an abrupt and rugged face about two thousand feet high with dense forest of pine timber - after dinner we truck up a little creek making out of the Rocky Mountain - it looked like it was going into a tunnel on the railroad -a sublime view.

7th Monday - When I got up there was ice 1/4 Inch think in our waterbucket - we passed through deep gulches and over high mountains and bypatches of snow a foot high - it snowed all day - we got to the Gregory Diggins - the ravine was filled up with shanties and people - We got to the Russell Gulch - it snowed just like it used to - Oliver Russell came out and stayed with us until ten o'clock.

12th - We went over to Chicago and six hands of us washed four hours on an old Tom and we made four pennyweight and three gr. John Russell said it would not do and we left.

13th Sunday - It was as cold a day as ever I saw - the wind blew and the now fell and the Ice froze two inches thick in our pan - the water froze over our bucket by the time I got from the spring. When I washed my face my beard froze so hard that I had to warm it by the fire before I could comb the ice out of it.

24th - There came a powerful snow storm

27th Sunday - We left the mountains and came down to Golden City and camped - the wind blew our tent over and blew Sol Roe's and R.Pierce'shat off into the gulch.

28th - We got to Denver - the wind blew and it rained - the worst dayI ever saw in my life.

May 30th - Sol Roe and Rob Pierce and Barak Spencer and myself begin to open our ditch by Denver for digging gold. I was not well.

June Ist - We begin to wash for gold and washed one hour and got about five pennyweight - Issac Morris was out of heart - he struck ball slate.

2nd - Oliver Russell came down from the mountains and stayed with ussix days - we had a fine time - we made grub money.

6th day - We got better prospect of gold.

14th - We only made one pennyweight of gold - at night there came a powerful storm of hail and wind - I don't like this country.

15th - We found better diggins at noon - we all went down to Denver to see a man hung for knocking another man in the head with an axe - they hung him States for Lion.

16th - The boys were hard to get up - Barak was out of heart and begin to map and talk of going back to the States - I got a woman to do my firstwashing.

June 17th Sunday - Me and Hufstetter went to Denver and knocked amongthe ladies.

19th - I went to Denver and got a letter from home - it pleased me well- the women sent a piece of their new dresses - I kept them to remember them.

20th - We begin to cut a new ditch to our mines - we cut it across theroad - in the evening there came along a man and said it was a perfect nuisance,so McAfee gave him a good cussing. He told him it was a free country and there was all the prairie for a road.

23rd - We went down to Denver to hear a man tried for murder - he was found guilty. Bob Pierce and J. 0. Palmour and I. Morris came back from prospecting. Tthey found no good diggins.

27th - We got our ditch through, so that the water ran through it. Thundered and looked like rain.

29th - We put in a sluice and begin to wash. We was scarce of water.

30th - Our company made I oz. 2 dwt. of gold. G. McAfee, B. Stone and Bud made 14 dwt. on a ton.

July Ist - John D. Palmour borrowed 40 dollars of John B. Graham andwe laid in a supply of flour and bacon.

2nd - The water in our ditch failed.

3rd - We tried to put in a dam in the Platte and failed.

4th - We all went to Denver to celebrate the Independence of the United States - the Stars and Stripes floated at the base of the Rocky Mountains for the first time.

July !2th - In the evening there came a powerful storm of rain, wind and thunder - it wet all our things and the ground was covered with water.

13th - John 0. Palmour and his company left us and went back to Russell'sGulch; we sluiced off a pit and made a good evening's washing - Morris's company done a good days work.

16th - We quit washing and went to ditching again.

17th - Doc Russell came down and stayed all night with us. He brought great news of new discoveries in Arkansas - Rob Pierce and Sol Roe quit work and prepared to go see.

18th - Me and Barak and Bud sunk a pit on our new ditch - it prospected well.

19th - Rob Pierce and Sol Roe left us to go over to the Arkansas onanother prospecting tour - me and Barak and Bud begin to wash our pit out- we made three dwt of gold.

20th - Clear and cool we made two dwt of gold.

21st - We could not get scarcely the color of gold - Morris talked of leaving us tomorrow - he talked to some men about selling our claims -he told all the good part and left out all the bad which I call lying on a small scale or rather big gassing - in the evening we had a regular old fashioned Georgia rain all the evening.

22nd Sunday - Me and Barak went down to Denver and saw a funeral procession- we ate a pie and sweet cakes and two glasses of cider - I mailed a letter but got none - we made a divide of our gold with Morris and his company and we had left 7 dwt and 2 gr. and 4.25 in cash which was all me and Barak and Bud had as fund.

23rd - Morris left me and Barak and Bud and John Hufstetter on our claims on the Platte River and Morris and his company went back to Russell's Gulchin the mountains. So us four was left to fight the battle alone.

24th - Us four sold three of our claims for $50 dollars each in cashand one good yoke of oxen - me and Barak, Bud and Hufstetter are now ableto go home to Georgia to see our families - great rejoicing with us - me and Hufstetter went to Denver and took a spree we was so glad.

25th - We sold our oxen for fifty dollars and washed out three pennyweights of gold out of old work.

August 3rd - We sold three more of our gold claims for one gold watch one silver watch, one Colt revolver, five dollars in gold coin and one note for twenty-five dollars.

4th - Sol Roe and Rob Pierce started up to Russell's Gulch to wind up their business and let us all start home - I went to Denver and bought me a pair of pants - the first thing I have bought for myself.

5th Sunday - Me and Huff went to Mr. Clarks and Huff bought two pies at 60 cents - we made a good dinner out of them.

6th Monday - Clear and cool morning - Barak and Bud fixed seats in our wagon preparing to starting home - me and Hufstetter cleaned out our Tomsand rifle boxes and 41 gr. of gold - we quit work and I recorded threeclaims and received one dollar for it - I panned a little gold.

Tuesday 7th - Me and Barak and Huff went to town to Denver - no letters- three little girls each gave me two bits of candy. I gave them five cents a piece - they seemed to like me for it - small favors are sometimes thankfullyreceived and make everlasting friends - my motto has always been to bekind and generous to the little girls, they will some day made the fairladies of these great United States of America. We are now ready and anxiouslywaiting for Rob Pierce and Sol Roe to return from the mountains in orderto start home to our families in the Sunny South - At night the boys cameand Green Russell with them. I went out and bought us a bottle of whiskey- we had a good time generally.

9th - Sol Roe, Rob Pierce, Barak, Bud Hufstetter and L. Chambers allstored our tents and drove down to Denver - Green Russell treated all ourcompany and I ate with him at his expense - I love Green Russell. We thenformed our outfit and jumped in our wagon and started to Georgia - Greenrode with us one mile and bid us farewell - we then drank whiskey and sangall sorts of hymns and tunes - we drove 15 miles on our same ever lasting old field and camped on the bank of the Platte River - there came three wagons and men bound for the States and camped with us.

Friday the 10th - We left camp by one hour by sun and drove 15 milesand took dinner on the bank of the Platte R. - six wagons in Co. We passedthe ruins of an old mud wall or trappers fort - we then passed Fort St.Vrain and camped on the Platte River - we all took a drink of soda water- we are now in Nebraska Territory 47 miles north of Denver City in KansasT. The llth - We got up at daybreak - a cool morning we drove past themouth of the Cashlapooda where it runs into the Platte River. At this pointthe Platte makes the great bend and takes an easterly course taking thecourse of the Cashlapooda. From Denver to this point we traveled sixtymiles, but a little east of due north here we made the Grand Bend - westopped and took a heavy dram of old Bourbon whiskey and ate dinner - thenwe took a southeast course down the Platte - we still see the Rocky Mountains,but they look blue from this place - some few cottonwood trees on the river- the balance our everlasting old field - after dinner we made a good eveningtravel - we passed over some sandy road and drove down on the bank of thePlatte and camped - there was some mosquitoes. Four wagons camped withus - women and children - we set in for a big bender on the old Bourbonwhiskey to run off the mosquitoes - we succeeded.

12th Sunday - A very cold morning - we had a mess of beans for breakfastor what the boys called "freeholders" - we passed over some heavy sandroad - Bud lost his pocket book - the buffalo flies very bad - me and Hufstetterhad another stiff argument on the subject of universal salvation - I gothim learned - he got exceedingly mad - I promised to broach the subjectwith him no more - we got in sight of Fremonts Orchard and stopped fordinner - I gathered a bunch of flowers in Nebraska on the Platte River.Thebluffs or sand hills very bad - we camped by a spring - three wagons campedwith us - two women and children in company - me and Rob Pierce went to see our neighbors - Pierce and Roe the best men I ever traveled with.

13th Monday - An old man waked me up two hours before daybreak - hewas packing through on a little Indian pony - I thought him a very thrillingman - a clear cold morning - the sand bluffs ran down to the river at thisplace - the River all filled up with streaks of sand and streaks of water- little islands with bushes about waste high as thick as they could stand- a small kind of cockleburs - we passed on down the River and took dinnerat the last timber - Rob Pierce waded over to an island and packed oversome wood - we prepared to pass over the desert - partially cloudy someawful deep sand - I don't feel well today - we crossed Bijou Creek andBeaver Creek. After dinner we drove on finely - there came an awful stormof wind - Rob Pierce and Barak jumped out of the wagon and docked it. Ialso got out and we all held on to the wagon to keep it from blowing away- we passed two stations and camped on the bank of the Platte River.

14th Tuesday - We started from camp half past six o'clock - we madea good half days drive over good road - I was barkeeper today and I calledout the little keg occasionally - I got well. We passed a large train offreight wagons and several immigrant wagons with some of the fair sex boundfor the diggins. The prairie or our everlasting old field becomes exceedinglylevel and not a twig to make any variation in the view - cool day - themirage showed to great advantage - I could see the tops of the bluffs,while the base or foot of the bluffs were concealed from sight by the mirage- in' the evening Huff poked his arm out of the wagon and the wheel caughtit - we drove on a large bottom on the river and camped - there came alight storm of wind and rain - Rob and Huff got off to themselves to talkinglow - Sol told them there must be no secrets in our camp - we divided ourhoecake with a women - the moquitoes kept Rob and Bud fighting till threeo'clock - Rob took his blanket and left.

15th - A cold morning - we left our camp at seven o'clock and immediatelyencountered some heavy sand road - we met two wagons and one carriage -there were two nice looking ladies in the carriage talking and laughing- no man in the States knows how pretty women are till they are travelingon the Platte River in Nebraska Territory - we saw a range of high bluffson the North side of the River about twenty miles off. In the evening wepassed the Lilian Springs, a large muddy pool of water - not good - wepassed another mail station - there we saw a pretty woman all dressed upin red calico - we saw a dead horse by the side of the road covered withflies - we traveled down the Platte and camped in a large bottom. Rob Piercesays to write that there are so many mosquitoes here that they hide thesun from our sight - we saw some bluffs - the river about one half milewide - some little wood about - two o'clock in the night - me and Sol keptthe field - Rob, Barak, and Huff retreated to the bluffs from the mosquitoes.Rob said at daybreak the captain of them mosquitoes drew his army off andsaid that they would be with us at the upper crossing tonight.

16th Thursday - A light Spring rain at daybreak - at seven odd, we startedand immediately struck some bad sand hills - we met a large train of 27six yoke of oxen to each wagon bound for Denver, so our Bourbon whiskeybegan to get low. The River about two miles wide, the bank low and watergliding slowly over the sand, the soil generally poor and sandy, the growthmostly grass and small kind of bushes gi,owirig on the islafid in the Riverwhich resembles the wild locust of the South. Rob is now making a drinkof soda water - Barak is trying to make a fire of two willow switches toget out dinner - cool wind from the South. After dinner we got to the uppercrossing on the Platte and bought us a bacon ham for $4.50 - it weightedfifteen pounds - we got a drink of good cold ice water - we passed on ahigh bar about eighty yards from the River - built us a fire of buffalochips and prepared us a fort to fight our mosquitoes -about midnight theybrought on the attack and kept it up till daybreak. The 17th Friday - Meand Bud got by day - I turned the mules loose and Bud got breakfast overa fire mostly of buffalo chips, wood being scarce with us. A cold morningwith clouds in the west early after we started, we passed an Indian camp- we drove on down to the middle crossing and bed - lots of Indians - Igave three little children a piece of bread, a squaw and child then carne.up.-and I gave her some bread,cheer.and sugar. This place consists of our mudhouse and appears to be on the deadline. We traveled on - passed a station- got us a good drink of water - drove on three miles - lost Rob pony -he went back and found the pony - we passed the lone Tree and met anothercompany of Indians carrying their drags - we drove into a big bend of theRiver and camped - all the mosquitoes in the three territories met us here- this is the place they promised to give the boys battle - at midnight- Bud, Rob, Huff and Barak, all got up and wanted to gear up the mulesand retreat, but me and Sol would not go - so we kept the field with considerableloss.

The 18th Saturday - Barak and myself got up at daybreak - Barak gotbreakfast and prepared to start - the mosquitoes gave us another heavybattle before we left and said they would meet us at the Northe Plattetonight - we drove on about three miles and met the largest body of IndiansI ever saw - some three thousand warriors, squaws and papooses - some fouror five of them charged on two dogs and killed them with their arrows -they appeared perfectly friendly - we then drove on fifteen miles and tookdinner - a very hot day. Some wood - after dinner we passed O'Fallon'sBluffs and then we passed a large Indian camp of about three thousand -we gave some papooses some tobacco - we then drove to the next bend ofthe river and camped with about one hundred Sioux Indians. The Mosquitoesmet us according to promise - we got supper and fed four Indians - Theyseemed to enjoy themselves.

Sunday the 19th - We got up and some of the squaws and papooses cameto us for breakfast. Bud grumbled and growled - there is no accomationin him - he always opposed that I think to be fair and just between thewhite man and the red man of the forest - I think the white man generallytreat them very badly - we pass through their country, burn their wood,kill their buffalo, deer and antelope - it is no more than just for usto give them a little bite to eat once in a while - we traveled on downthe river - passed the junction of the North Platte and South Platte -a great bend in the river - we traveled about a east course - I slept agood deal today - cool and pleasant day - no variation in the face of thecountry - one everlasting old field - after dinner we drove three milesto the Junction House - there we saw Jack Morrel huggin' two Indian squaws- at this place the cottonwood timber set in a dense forest along the river- thence a little'further down the bluffs or little mountains set in aboutthree miles down the river and scattering among the bluffs, just enoughto make them lonesome as the mountains of lduma - We camped at a placecalled Box Elder - me and Sol went to the river for wood - found some grapes- very sour - we cooked a mess of beans - at half past eight Barak, Budboth went hunting till twelve - no mules - I slept and had pleasant dreams.

20th Monday - We got up at daybreak and all turned out to hunt our stock.We hunted till nine o'clock and met back at our wagon - no trace of mules- I went out into the Bluffs - I was astonished to see the Bluffs as wecalled them - were perfect mountains with deep and rugged ravines withthick bunches of ceder - Rob offered an old mountaineer ten dollars tobring us our stock - he mounted his pony and dashed off down the PlatteRiver in pursuit of them - we have some hope till we hear his report -he came back - no find them - and Barak took off down the river - a sevenmile ride - Rob Pierce hired a horse and took off - found a man who gavehim short words - he made him take him to the mules - three men had themtied. Rob made them loose the mules and they shot twice at him and he letthem have it with one barrel of his double barrelled shotgun - the manhollowed. Rob's pony ran off - Our mules ran out of the Bluffs to me andBarak - we caught them - drove them down to Cottonwood. I, Rob and fourother men went in search of the thieves - found some hay cutters - timerather squally.

21st Tuesday - I had cramp in my legs - we drove on till dinner withoutanything of note occurring Two wagons and twelve men stopped with us -there was one Missourian - a whole souled man. We drove on to Smith's ranchand camped with our twelve men - all good fellows.

22nd Wednesday - We drove till dinner and overtook Mr. Roberts of Iowa.We had a cordial meeting - we then left and crossed Plum Crek and got intobuffalos - we saw one hundred of them - Rob shot several of them with hisshotgun, but it no fetched them - we drove on and camped by ourselves again- I wanted to drive till we got with other wagons - Sol Roe said we wereable to protect ourselves. The mosquitoes are our cousins - they paid usanother friendly visit. We got very tired of our cousins as they were pitchinginto everything.

23rd- Bud got breakfast - a cold morning - we started and Rob killeda buffalo which stopped us one hour - we then drove on to Fort Kearneyand took dinner. Rob bought three watermelons. Sol bought us a box of sardines- this place is situated in the middle of a large bottom. I saw some beautifulwomen at this place. The houses are mostly all built of prairie sod cutin the shape of brick - we bought us five more watermelons and dozen for$1.50. We then drove down to where our road leaves the Platte River andcamped at a place where there are three or four little mud houses and agrocery store bearing the name of the worst horse thieving place on theroad - I did not like our camping place - I would prefer to drive aftersupper - all the wagoners are passing us and going on which makes our placelook a little more suspicious, but Rob fears nothing and I reckon we shallhave to stay here and risk our chances.

24 Friday No man came about us last night - there are four sheep andfive chickens at this place here this morning at this place we bid thePlatte River an everlasting adieu after traveling down it for four hundredmiles. At this place the river is said to be fifteen miles wide - me andRob bought four watermelons five one dollars for them and struck acrossthe Divide to the Blue River - we drove twenty two miles to a creek atthe station and stopped for dinner four oxen team with some ladies stoppedwith us - we drove off and left our neighbors met some provisions wagons- bought us a quart of brandy and two dozen apples, the first we had seen- we passed over high prairies - excellent road hills in the ground. Wedrove forty miles over to the Little Blue River and camped - a fine beltof cottonwood timber along this stream - the water clear and some betterthan the Platte. The grass poor - high and cool wind all day.

25th Saturday - Clear and cool morning - Bud got breakfast. Rob andSol are to sleep till breakfast - every morning they are so good and kindto us. Barak and Bud cook day about - Huff sleeps and lazier every morningtill the boys get breakfast and in the day time he tells big tales howhe came round the women and had them liking him better than anybody elseaccording to his own tales - he always comes out triumphant. But I havedoubts. I never like to hear any man speak disrespectful of the ladies- if they do men a favour, it is right and just and fair that men shouldhold their tongues - we passed on over some high prairie - bend in theriver and at nine o'clock and it took us till one o'clock to drive over- then the boys prepared cooking beans for dinner - I was rather opposedto the process as I was very hungry and all women know it takes a day tocook dry beans - The grass was very dry, short and poor. After boilingthe beans we drove about eight miles down the Blue and camped the Green,the flies worst I ever saw - some better grass. Rob says me and him willget home by tomorrow two weeks - me and Sol had gathered wood - Barak,Bud and Huff are getting supper - Rob has gone fishing, caught two catfish. The mosquitoes are awful bad.

The 26th Sunday - Some clouds - Barak got breakfast and we ate and startedfor Big Sandy - we crossed over the high Divide - 18 miles without water- the whole plain covered with grasshoppers - we came to a house and boughtfive watermelons - we then drove to Big Sandy and ate dinner. We then drovesix miles over to Little Sandy and camped for the rest of the night witha large train of wagons - I got some post oak wood - we had a little restfrom the mosquitoes.

The 27th Monday - The train drove off at daylight - clear and beautifulmorning - we took a high cut on the road - said to be four miles nearer- we found the road bad, hilly and rocky - we drove over to Rock Creekby half past nine o'clock and stopped, fed and rested a while at this place- there is a store and clerk attending to it - he has two bottles partlyfull of stricknine whiskey and a few bushels of corn for sale. They areconsiderable of timber in this Creek, Walnut burr, oak, mulberry and diverseother kinds - we drove on to Wolf Creek - there is the best of well waterthere - four men playing cards - one woman playing with a baby. The cornabout waist high and not one ear on it. We then drove on to a place calledCottonwood and camped - there is a good house and a store. After supperthe boys got into a debate about the cause of rain and the things Huff,Rob and Sol contended that God had.nothing to do with rain - now it allcame according to the laws of nature, for they said he did all his workin the six days or had to work yet. Barak allowed that God went throughonce in a while and sorta stirred up things, like a man after he got hiscorn laid by. Barak said that God looked through every now and then tokeep the hogs out and noticed that they don't destroy too much.

The 28th Tuesday - A beautiful morning - clear and cool - Barak hadbreakfast by sun up - we struck out twelve miles to Marysville, a little town situated on the east bank of the Big Blue River, the town had theappearance of being in a dilapidated condition - we then drove on to a creek seven miles east of Marysville and fed there was a train of immigrant wagons here after dinner - we drove on - came to a new road said to besix miles closer - some few corn fields on this stream - all burnt up totassel - no ears on the stalk. We then struck for a creek seven milesoff- got there at sun down - no water in creek we drove on till one hour in the night - found a little water in a puddle and camped for a night - small allowance to eat.

The 29th - I got up and fed the mules - Bud got breakfast - Huff manages to sleep every morning and let the boys wait on him - he trys to be a gentleman- no go. We drove four miles to Ash Prairie, a little trading post where there are three stores we traded with Uncle Golin a little - we then droveon to a little town called Senaca - this appears to be a flourishing place- some buildings situated on the west bank of the big Ninchaw - no water in this creek - we then started off and Huff got out and rode on horseback- we passed a school house where they were teaching the first marks of civilization- we stopped at a house and boiled us a pot of potatoes - after dinnerwe struck off and passed another town, Catamuly - we crossed several small creeks - all dry and dusty in the beds, we camped by a farmers house, boughtus a pound of butter and ate them with good relish. The farmer came out and chatted with us till nine o'clock - the face of country uneven, ratherhilly, with timber on the dry creek - very dry.

30th Thursday - Me and Barak got up by day, I fed the mules and he got breakfast, Huff slept as usual - he is man of a singular opinion - he argues strenuously for the doctrine of universal salvation - he denies part ofthe Bible being the word of God and contends largely for all the passages that goes to support his theory, if deny one single text being the Wordof God with the camped the Green, the flies worst I ever saw - some better grass. Rob says me and him will get home by tomorrow two weeks - me andSol had gathered wood - Barak, Bud and Huff are getting supper - Rob has gone fishing, caught two cat fish. The mosquitoes are awful bad.

The 26th Sunday - Some clouds - Barak got breakfast and we ate and started for Big Sandy - we crossed over the high Divide - 18 miles without water- the whole plain covered with grasshoppers - we came to a house and bought five watermelons - we then drove to Big Sandy and ate dinner. We then drovesix miles over to Little Sandy and camped for the rest of the night witha large train of wagons - I got some post oak wood - we had a little rest from the mosquitoes.

The 27th Monday - The train drove off at daylight - clear and beautiful morning - we took a high cut on the road - said to be four miles nearer- we found the road bad, hilly and rocky - we drove over to Rock Creek by half past nine o'clock and stopped, fed and rested a while at this place- there is a store and clerk attending to it - he has two bottles partly full of stricknine whiskey and a few bushels of corn for sale. They areconsiderable of timber in this Creek, Walnut burr, oak, mulberry and diverse other kinds - we drove on to Wolf Creek - there is the best of well water there - four men playing cards - one woman playing with a baby. The cornabout waist high and not one ear on it. We then drove on to a place calledCottonwood and camped - there is a good house and a store. After supper the boys got into a debate about the cause of rain and the things Huff,Rob and Sol contended that God had. Nothing to do with rain - now it all came according to the laws of nature, for they said he did all his work in the six days or had to work yet. Barak allowed that God went through once in a while and sorta stirred up things, like a man after he got his corn laid by. Barak said that God looked through every now and then tokeep the hogs out and noticed that they don't destroy too much.

The 28th Tuesday - A beautiful morning - clear and cool - Barak had breakfast by sun up - we struck out twelve miles to Marysville, a littletown situated on the east bank of the Big Blue River, the town had the appearance of being in a dilapidated condition - we then drove on to a creek seven miles east of Marysville and fed there was a train of immigrant wagons here after dinner - we drove on - came to a new road said to besix miles closer - some few cornfields on this stream - all burnt up totassel - no ears on the stalk. We then struck for a creek seven miles off- got there at sun down - no water in creek we drove on till one hour in the night - found a little water in a puddle and camped for a night - small allowance to eat.

The 29th - I got up and fed the mules - Bud got breakfast - Huff manages to sleep every morning and let the boys wait on him - he trys to be a gentleman- no go. We drove four miles to Ash Prairie, a little trading post where there are three stores we traded with Uncle Golin a little - we then droveon to a little town called Senaca - this appears to be a flourishing place- some buildings situated on the west bank of the big Ninchaw - no waterin this creek - we then started off and Huff got out and rode on horseback- we passed a schoolhouse where they were teaching the first marks of civilization- we stopped at a house and boiled us a pot of potatoes - after dinner we struck off and passed another town, Catamuly - we crossed several smallcreeks - all dry and dusty in the beds, we camped by a farmers house, bought us a pound of butter and ate them with good relish. The farmer came outand chatted with us till nine o'clock - the face of country uneven, rather hilly, with timber on the dry creek - very dry.

30th Thursday - Me and Barak got up by day, I fed the mules and he got breakfast, Huff slept as usual - he is man of a singular opinion - he argues strenuously for the doctrine of universal salvation - he denies part ofthe Bible being the word of God and contends largely for all the passages that goes to support his theory, if deny one single text being the Word of God with the camped the Green, the flies worst I ever saw - some bettergrass. Rob says me and him will get home by tomorrow two weeks - me andSol had gathered wood - Barak, Bud and Huff are getting supper - Rob has gone fishing, caught two cat fish. The mosquitoes are awful bad.

The 26th Sunday - Some clouds - Barak got breakfast and we ate and startedfor Big Sandy - we crossed over the high Divide - 18 miles without water- the whole plain covered with grasshoppers - we came to a house and bought five watermelons - we then drove to Big Sandy and ate dinner. We then drove six miles over to Little Sandy and camped for the rest of the night witha large train of wagons - I got some post oak wood - we had a little rest from the mosquitoes.

The 27th Monday - The train drove off at daylight - clear and beautiful morning - we took a high cut on the road - said to be four miles nearer- we found the road bad, hilly and rocky - we drove over to Rock Creekby half past nine o'clock and stopped, fed and rested a while at this place- there is a store and clerk attending to it - he has two bottles partlyfull of stricknine whiskey and a few bushels of corn for sale. They areconsiderable of timber in this Creek, Walnut burr, oak, mulberry and diverse other kinds - we drove on to Wolf Creek - there is the best of well water there - four men playing cards - one woman playing with a baby. The cornabout waist high and not one ear on it. We then drove on to a place called Cottonwood and camped - there is a good house and a store. After supperthe boys got into a debate about the cause of rain and the things Huff,Rob and Sol contended that God had.nothing to do with rain - now it all came according to the laws of nature, for they said he did all his workin the six days or had to work yet. Barak allowed that God went through once in a while and sorta stirred up things, like a man after he got his corn laid by. Barak said that God looked through every now and then tokeep the hogs out and noticed that they don't destroy too much.

The 28th Tuesday - A beautiful morning - clear and cool - Barak had breakfast by sun up - we struck out twelve miles to Marysville, a littletown situated on the east bank of the Big Blue River, the town had theappearance of being in a dilapidated condition - we then drove on to acreek seven miles east of Marysville and fed there was a train of immigrantwagons here after dinner - we drove on - came to a new road said to besix miles closer - some few cornfields on this stream - all burnt up to tassel - no ears on the stalk. We then struck for a creek seven miles off- got there at sun down - no water in creek we drove on till one hour inthe night - found a little water in a puddle and camped for a night - smallallowance to eat.

The 29th - I got up and fed the mules - Bud got breakfast - Huff manages to sleep every morning and let the boys wait on him - he trys to be a gentleman- no go. We drove four miles to Ash Prairie, a little trading post wherethere are three stores we traded with Uncle Golin a little - we then drove on to a little town called Senaca - this appears to be a flourishing place- some buildings situated on the west bank of the big Ninchaw - no waterin this creek - we then started off and Huff got out and rode on horseback- we passed a school house where they were teaching the first marks of civilization- we stopped at a house and boiled us a pot of potatoes - after dinnerwe struck off and passed another town, Catamuly - we crossed several small creeks - all dry and dusty in the beds, we camped by a farmers house, boughtus a pound of butter and ate them with good relish. The farmer came out and chatted with us till nine o'clock - the face of country uneven, rather hilly, with timber on the dry creek - very dry.

30th Thursday - Me and Barak got up by day, I fed the mules and he got breakfast, Huff slept as usual - he is man of a singular opinion - he argues strenuously for the doctrine of universal salvation - he denies part ofthe Bible being the word of God and contends largely for all the passagesthat goes to support his theory, if deny one single text being the Word of God with the Sam propriety we can reject the whole. We drove off and passed the Kickapoo Indian Reserve. Those Indians have farm stock of allkinds and are civilized. Timber of several kinds with many creeks, butnot one drop of water in them - the face of the country uneven, rather hilly - we stopped and fed opposite a little town called Hinneydunk. Wethen struck out on our road. Huff said we was in the parallel road. We traveled by large farms, the corn all dried up - we stopped at a house,bought eggs, butter, the corn of a woman - 15c for eggs and butter. Theboys say we are where we live again.

Friday 31 - Most beautiful morning we have had - all up by light - all in high spirits - only eight miles from Atchison - now on three miles of town - I took a view of the valley of the great Missouri River - we land in Atchison half past eight o'clock - eat the best of watermelon, peachesand lager beer cheap - at one o'clock I treated all the boys to a drinkof cider - we parted and Barak and Bud and Huff left us - at night we wenton the steam boat Banjo to a nigger exhibition, paid $1.50 at the hotel and I prepared to start at 4 o'clock.

Sept. 1- Saturday - Me and Rob and Sol got on the cars at half past four o'clock and ran up the M. River 20 miles to St. Joseph. Got breakfast at the Hurley House. St. Joe is a beautiful and flourishing town situatedon the east bank of the M. River and went sailing through the Missouri R. I thought of Barak and I cried. I could not help It, forgive my weakness.Ate dinner at Brookfield and I set in my seat next to a lady with two fatboys and a negro girl - poor hilly country - at Shelby I swapped off my woman and 2 little boys for one with a crooked nose - good corn. Great land and heavy timber. The conductor put all the steam on about thirty miles from Hannibal and we went sweeping into town at the rate of 60 miles per hour - we got off the cars and stepped right onto this steam packetboat "Hannibal City" and went seeping down the Mississippi River to St.Louis. The water clear and beautiful, rather a greenish cast - we got onboard at 5 o'clock p.m.

2nd Sunday - At three o'clock I waked up, we were fast on a sand bar,hunt two hours got off at five o'clock and went sweeping down the MississippiRiver. Wet morning wind from the west, passed high bluffs - landed at a considerable town called Alton on the Illinois shore. Passed the mouthof the great Missouri River at eight o'clock, where the water became exceedingly muddy - We landed in St. Louis at nine o'clock - got in an amibus and droveto the Barnum Hotel, a mammoth building of brick, six stories high, we took a walk over town, the city is situated on the West bank of the MississippiRiver, twenty miles below the junction of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers - this is a large and flourishing city. The steamboats were crowded along the wharves for five miles as thick as they could stand. We are waitinghere till 6 o'clock - we crossed the river - got on the cars - ran to Odinlay all night.

The 3rd Monday - Got on the cars at 5 O'clock and went sweeping throughIllinois to Cairo - vote on cars for president:

Lincoln ---------- 3
Douglas ---------- 10
Breckenridge ----- 10
Bell ------------- 13

The rain came down in torrents - rich and level land with heavy timber- many flourishing towns - several likely young ladies on board - one byme. Rough and hilly, big and dense forests of timber - good crops - nowbecomes exceedingly rich and level land - great crops - we landed at Cairoat ___ o'clock - our cars rang their bell for a slow time all through the town - we got off the cars and stepped on the great steam boat "Hannibal"and went sweeping down the Ohio River - this river will average about one mile wide smooth and beautiful waters. We landed at Columbus, Kentucky at one o'clock and stepped aboard the cars one hour before starting time- at 2 O'clock we flew off - level land - rich - the best land I ... rgreat corn, cars run exceedingly fast.

Vote:
Bell ------------- 46
Douglas ---------- 8
Lincoln ---------- 0
Breckenridge ----- 22

First cotton field - open - we ran to Jackson by Sanderson and poorsupper. Tuscumbia by night.

The 4th Tuesday - At ____ we passed wreck of cars - large cotton field.Short passed Decatur by sunup - good crops - little mountains rocky - corn dried up. Sol got off at Belifont Station. We ran up to Stephenson andmade a halt of 45 minutes. Corn good - at ten o'clock rossed that awful high bridge across the Big Tennessee River - one or two miles long - mytoes ached. Exceeding good corn - ran up the bank of the Tennessee River- chain of little mountains got to Chattanooga at I o'clock and at three we got on the Atlanta cars bound for Maritta. I gave silver change to a lady on the car for a paper bill - it made me think well of old Georgia.I slept while we ran thirty miles, at Resacca, ten or twelve young ladies,all dressed in white stood on the railroad side - I guess the conductorstopped the train - there are not many things that will make the conductorof a railroad train stop, but the ladies have power over him that guidesthe Iron Horse. Rob bought some grapes and gave me some - sweet and good- stopped at Kingston for supper - ran down to Cartersville, crossed the great bridge on Hightower - ran to Maritta and got off.

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